If amplification was identified, consider “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”F15153″,”term_id”:”976042″,”term_text”:”F15153″F15153 (INC280) trial, Phase IB “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT01999972″,”term_id”:”NCT01999972″NCT01999972, or crizotinib and if not present consider ATR or PARP inhibitor trial. were made for 19/21 (90.5%) patients, and four LIMK1 patients (21%) underwent treatment with a targeted agent, two as part of a clinical trial. Identified barriers to treatment with targeted therapy included: ineligibility for clinical trials (n??=??2), lack of interest in study/distance to travel (n??=??2), lack of disease progression (n??=??2), poor performance status (n??=??5), decision to treat next with immunotherapy (n??=??3), and unknown (n??=??1). For the majority of lung cancer patients, the MTB provided LXS196 recommendations based on tumor genetic profiles. Identified barriers to treatment suggest that presentation to the MTB at earlier stages of disease may increase the number of patients eligible for treatment with a genetically informed targeted agent. fusion oncogene. Imatinib was FDA-approved in 2001, turning once-rapidly fatal CML into a chronic disease. Lung cancer is estimated to account for 225,000 new cases and 158,000 cancer deaths annually in the U.S [1]. This is expected to represent 26.5% of all cancer deaths in 2016 [1]. Fortunately, molecular therapeutics continue to play an increasingly important role in the treatment of lung cancer as the pace of drug development to approval has increased. At the time of this cohort analysis current molecular testing guidelines for the selection of therapy in patients with lung adenocarcinoma include at minimum, and testing [2]. Subsequently, and have been added due to the availability of recently approved drugs. While a relatively small proportion of tumors harbor molecular alterations targetable by FDA-approved brokers, an in silico prescription strategy, based on identification of the driver alterations and their druggability options suggests that up to 70% of tumors could potentially respond to treatments currently under clinical investigation [3]. A study from M.D. Anderson Cancer Center evaluated patients with advanced cancer that harbored genetic alterations, and compared the outcomes of those enrolled into genetically matched (n??=??175) versus non-matched (n??=??116) clinical trials [4]. The matched group had a higher overall response rate (27% vs. 5%; or mutations and rearrangements. One patient had Stage IIIb disease; all others were Stage IV; 18 patients had previously received 1 prior line of therapy (range LXS196 0C5). Suggestions for treatment with a targeted therapy were made for 19/21 (90.5%) patients, and four patients underwent treatment with a MTB-recommended targeted agent (21.1%), two as part of a clinical trial. Herein, we provide treatment histories for the four patients to illustrate how rational drug-mutation matching has impacted outcome (Fig.?2). Table?2 Lung cancer patients presented to the Molecular Tumor Board, mutations present, final recommendations, and barriers to treatment. LXS196 (p.V600E) and (p.T992I). At the time, case reports and interim results of Phase II trials indicate that p.V600E-mutant lung cancers frequently respond to BRAF inhibition [[8], [9], [10], [11]]. The MTB recommended treatment with BRAF and MEK inhibitors per clinical trial “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”F12214″,”term_id”:”706556″,”term_text”:”F12214″F12214: A Phase II study of the Selective BRAF Kinases Inhibitor GSK2118436 in Subjects With Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and BRAF Mutations [11]. The patient remained on therapy for 2 years and 3 months before progressing (Fig.?1A). He was next treated with the anti-PD1 antibody nivolumab. Of note, V600E became a FDA-approved indication with breakthrough designation of the combination of dabrafenib plus trametinib in 2015 followed by regular approval in 2017. Open in a separate window Fig.?1 Clinical course of four patients who received targeted therapies. Patient 11 was a 77-year-old female diagnosed with Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with lymph node involvement and bilateral pulmonary metastases. Molecular profiling of a lymph node biopsy with immunohistochemistry consistent with her primary lung tumor revealed mutations in (p.A268P c.802G?? ??C) and (p.A159P). Although there were no data found on the A268P mutation, A268S variant had been reported in three colorectal cancer cell lines (COSM2960508). The MTB considered this a variant of uncertain significance, although the patient may be eligible for a FGFR inhibitor trial upon screening. She was enrolled in “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT02160041″,”term_id”:”NCT02160041″NCT02160041 a phase II trial of BGJ398, a selective FGFR 1/2/3 inhibitor, for patients with tumors with genetic alterations. (Fig.?1B). Unfortunately, the trial protocol designated that the patient terminate her participation due.