Chagas should be considered as a differential diagnosis for unexplained heart disease and it is important to continue the insect and pest control programs. Acknowledgments We appreciate the assistance of Dr Liz Didier (TNPRC) in facilitating these studies, Dr Frank Cogswell for instigating this research, Fagomine and Mr Frank Steurer (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA) for supplying the test sera. 68%, range depends on state) and opossums (17% to 52%).6 The first case of in a NHP in the United States occurred at the Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Covington, LA; now called the Tulane National Primate Research Center [TNPRC]), where a gibbon (infection in NHP have been reported in Louisiana, Texas, and Georgia. Additional infected NHP were identified in Washington, Oregon, and Maryland; the suspicion was that they previously were infected in Texas, Louisiana, or Georgia (Table 1). Because these NHP Rabbit Polyclonal to PLCG1 were either imported from outside the United States, where has not been reported to occur naturally, or were born and raised in the United States, these cases point to infection that was acquired in the United States. To understand the prevalence of locally acquired infection at the TNRPC, we conducted a serologic survey of 2157 NHP residing at the center. Materials and Methods Study design. To determine the prevalence of infection in NHP at the TNPRC, we first validated an immunochromatographic rapid, dipstick assay for the detection of antibodies in NHP. We then used this test to assay plasma samples from 2157 NHP from the center. infection in 4 seropositive NHP was confirmed by hemoculture and PCR of the cultured parasites. Study site. TNPRC is an AAALAC-accredited facility and 1 of 8 national NHP centers funded by the NIH. The center houses approximately 4200 NHP including 13 different species; the majority are rhesus macaques (antigens in human sera.21 This assay was tested on 7 archived NHP serum samples that had previously tested positive for antibodies by using 1 of 3 Fagomine serologic tests (enzyme immunosorbance assay, indirect immunofluoresence, and complement fixation) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In addition, the dipstick assay was tested on 16 NHP samples positive for the nonpathogenic, but antigenically similar, parasite and 10 NHP serum samples negative for both parasites (all provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA). Each dipstick assay on these control sera was performed (in triplicate) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. We tested for agreement between the dipstick assay and the archived NHP controls with the agreement statistic ( = 1 is complete agreement; 0 is random) by using JMP version 9 (SAS, Cary, NC). Study animals. Whole blood was collected from 2172 NHP at the TNPRC by venipuncture into tubes containing EDTA during routine health exams between 2003 to 2004 under a protocol approved by Fagomine the animal care and use committees of both the TNPRC and Loyola University New Orleans. For sample collection, NHP were anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg); 15 plasma samples were hemolyzed and therefore not analyzed further. Three primate species were tested: 1311 rhesus macaques (spp. [primarily and hybrids]). These NHP were residing in 33 of the primate center’s 70 outdoor housing areas. The average daily census of the species studied during 2004 (only 31 samples were collected in 2003) was 2776 rhesus macaques, 388 pig-tailed macaques, and 548 baboons. The colony is maintained with more female than male animals as breeding populations; the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.64 for rhesus macaques, 1:3.34 for pig-tailed macaques, and 1:2.81 for baboons. Assessment of infection. Serology. The NHP plasma samples were transferred to Loyola University New Orleans, stored at ?20 C, and brought to room temperature before serologic testing. Each of the plasma samples was tested for the presence of antibodies against by using the dipstick assay (Trypanosoma Detect Rapid Test, InBios International) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Because of the large number of samples, each experimental sample.